Islamic marital jurisprudence Slave women were required mainly as concubines and menials. A Muslim slaveholder was entitled by law to the sexual enjoyment of his slave women. While free women might own male slaves, they had no such right.
The marriage of slaves required the consent of the owner. Under the Hanafi and Shafi'i schools of jurisprudence male slaves could marry two wives, but the Maliki permitted them to marry four wives like the free men. According to the Islamic law, a male slave could marry a free woman but this was discouraged in practice.
This is referred to in the Qur'an as ma malakat aymanukum or "what your right hands possess". By the High Middle Ages it became normal and was unremarkable in a society where the sovereigns themselves were almost invariably the children of slave concubines.
Among Sunnis, she is automatically freed upon her master's death, however for Shi'a, she is only freed if her child is still alive; her value is then deducted from this child's share of the inheritance. However, the general marital laws are to be observed, such as not having sexual relations with the sister of a female slave. This attempt to require sexual exclusivity for female slaves was rare in antiquity, when female slaves generally had no claim to an exclusive sexual relationship.
The Shiite scholar Shaykh al-Tusi stated: This principle is pursued up to three generations, after which all Muslims are deemed equally free. His purpose, he states, is not to try to set up a moral competition - to compare castration and apartheid as offenses against humanity.
Some Muslim scholars have taken this mean that his true motive was to bring about a gradual elimination of slavery. An alternative argument is that by lending the moral authority of Islam to slavery, Muhammad assured its legitimacy. Thus, in lightening the fetter, he riveted it ever more firmly in place.
But as the frontiers were gradually stabilized, this supply dwindled to a mere trickle. The prisoners of later wars between Muslims and Christians were commonly ransomed or exchanged. These slaves suffered a high death toll. He however notes that with the passage of time and the extension of Islam, Islam by recognizing and codifying slavery seems to have done more to protect and expand slavery than the reverse.
A task of the masters was religious instruction. Conversion and assimilation into the society of the master didn't automatically lead to emancipation, though there was normally some guarantee of better treatment and was deemed a prerequisite for emancipation. According to some jurists -especially among the Shi'a - only Muslim slaves should be liberated.
It is a requirement for this sustenance to be of the same standard generally found in the locality and it is also recommended for the slave to have the same standard of food and clothing as the master. If the master refuses to provide the required sustenance, the slave may complain to a judge, who may then penalize the master through sale of her or his goods as necessary for the slave's keep.
If the master does not have sufficient wealth to facilitate this, she or he must either sell, hire out, or manumit the slave as ordered. Slaves also have the right to a period of rest during the hottest parts of the day during the summer. As slaves are regarded as inferior in Islamic law, death at the hands of a free man does not require that the latter be killed in retaliation.
At the same time, slaves themselves possess a lessened responsibility for their actions, and receive half the penalty required upon a free man. Slaves are allowed to marry only with the owner's consent.
Jurists differ over how many wives a slave may possess, with the Hanafi and Shafi'i schools allowing them two, and the Maliki school allowing four. Slaves are not permitted to possess or inherit property, or conduct independent business, and may conduct financial dealings only as a representative of the master.
Offices of authority are generally not permitted for slaves, though a slave may act as the leader Imam in the congregational prayers , and he may also act as a subordinate officer in the governmental department of revenue.
There are numerous ways in which a slave may become free. One way is through expiation for certain sins committed by the master, such as involuntary manslaughter or perjury. Other ways include emancipation through becoming an umm walad  , who is freed upon her master's death along with her children, or an independent act of piety by the master, as recommended by the Quran. It is also commendable to manumit a slave who demands his freedom and is considered worthy of it; however, Richard Francis Burton states in a footnote to the "Tale of the Second Eunuch", commenting on the proposed emancipation of a slave without employable skills, that "Here the slave refuses to be set free and starve.
For a master so to do without ample reasons is held disgraceful. I well remember the weeping and wailing throughout Sind when an order from Sir Charles Napier set free the negroes whom British philanthropy thus doomed to endure if not to die of hunger. Levy states that "the slave may redeem himself if his master agrees and contracts to let him go on payment of a stipulated sum of money, which may be paid in two or more instalments, or on the giving of stipulated services or other consideration.
If the consideration is a sum of money, the master must grant the slave the right to earn and to own property. Similarly, the master may promise manumission verbally or in writing that the slave is to be freed upon the former's death. Lastly, a slave is also freed automatically if she or he comes into the possession of a master who is directly related to her or him.
He states that "Manumission was only one of several virtuous observances that the pious could avail themselves of and was by no means the most important,"  noting that other options include reaffirming faith in God and giving food to the poor.
He concludes that "there was no contradiction between being a devout Muslim and a slave-owing one as well. These religious authorities declared that slavery is lawful in principle but it is regrettable in its consequences.
They expressed two religious considerations in their support for abolition of slavery: According to the influential thesis of Ameer Ali , Islam only tolerated slavery through temporary necessity and that its complete abolition was not possible at the time of Muhammad.
They have used the dramatic change in the institution of slavery in the 7th and 8th centuries to argue that the Qur'an would not have condoned the slaving practices common in Islamic history. This has caused at least one scholar William Clarence-Smith  to bemoan the "dogged refusal of Mawlana Mawdudi to give up on slavery"  and the notable "evasions and silences of Muhammad Qutb ".
And concerning slavery, that was when slavery was a world-wide structure and which was conducted amongst Muslims and their enemies in the form of enslaving of prisoners of war. And it was necessary for Islam to adopt a similar line of practise until the world devised a new code of practise during war other than enslavement.
Islam made it lawful for a master to have a number of slave-women captured in wars and enjoined that he alone may have sexual relations with them Europe abhors this law but at the same gladly allows that most odious form of animalism according to which a man may have illicit relations with any girl coming across him on his way to gratify his animal passions.