African Americans, waiting to register to vote, form a long line outside the Dallas Courthouse in Selma, Alabama, February Public Accommodations Prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin in certain places of public accommodation, such as hotels, restaurants, and places of entertainment.
Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. City of Rock Hill Dismissed state breach-of-the-peace charges against sit-in demonstrators at a lunch counter because the charges conflicted with the Civil Rights Act of South Carolina Tony Auth.
Desegregation of Public Facilities Permitted the U. Justice Department to sue to secure desegregation of certain public facilities owned, operated, or managed by any state or subdivision of a state. Desegregation of Public Education Authorized the U. Attorney General to receive complaints alleging denials of equal protection, to investigate those complaints, and to file suit in U. District Court to seek desegregation of the school.
Also authorized the Secretary of Education to provide funds to school boards to assist their desegregation efforts. African American and white school children on a school bus, riding from suburbs to an inner city school in Charlotte, North Carolina , Civil Rights Commission Addressed procedures for the Civil Rights Commission, broadened its duties, and extended its life through January Its duties included investigating allegations that citizens were deprived of their right to vote or to have their vote properly counted.
It also studied legal developments related to a denial of equal protection of the law, particularly in the domains of voting, education, housing, employment, public accommodations, transportation, and the administration of justice. Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs Prohibited discrimination by recipients of federal funds on the basis of race, color, and national origin.
Nichols Ruled a school that accepted federal funds and did not provide adequate English courses or other educational benefits to students of Chinese ancestry, who did not speak English, violated Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of California Cannon v.
University of Chicago Determined that Title VI created a private remedy as well as authorized the withholding of federal funds from education programs that discriminated on the basis of race Illinois Alexander v. Sandoval Determined that Title VI only authorized private remedies for lawsuits based on intentional discrimination and not on evidence of disparate impact Alabama Gratz v.
Equal Employment Opportunity Outlawed employment discrimination by businesses affecting commerce with at least twenty-five employees on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin and created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Martin Marietta Ruled that not hiring mothers of preschool-aged children while hiring fathers of preschool-aged children violated Title VII; the first sex discrimination case to go to the U. Green Found that an employee who presents initial evidence of racial discrimination requires an employer to show a legitimate lawful reason why the employee was not hired.
Manhart Determined that an employer may not use the fact that women, as a group, live longer than men to justify a policy of requiring female employees to make larger contributions to a pension plan in order to receive the same monthly pension benefits when they retire California United Steelworkers v.
Weber Held that Title VII permitted private sector employers and unions to implement voluntary affirmative action plans to remedy past discrimination Louisiana Meritor Savings Bank v. Transportation Agency, Santa Clara County Ruled voluntary affirmative action programs for women in fields where they had previously been excluded were constitutional under certain circumstances California International Union, UAW v.
Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc. ERA march, Washington, D. Registration and Voting Statistics Directed the Census Bureau to collect registration and voting statistics based on race, color, and national origin but provided that individuals could not be compelled to disclose such information. Demonstrators with signs outside the White House, protesting police brutality against civil rights demonstrators in Selma, Alabama , Intervention in Court Cases Permitted the United States to intervene in pending suits alleging a denial of equal protection of law under the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution on account of race, color, religion, or national origin.
Community Relations Service Created the Community Relations Service to aid communities in resolving disputes relating to discriminatory practices based on race, color, or national origin. Erlenbusch Referred a case involving a tavern that had adopted a policy prohibiting the use of a foreign language at the bar to the Community Relations Service to see if they could provide assistance Oregon Goldsby v.
Rapone Held that a Department of Corrections official charged with criminal contempt for violating court order prohibiting retaliation against witnesses was entitled to a jury trial under Title XI Washington, D.
Cosby in Lawyer Derrick Bell — discusses the limits of civil rights law and ending segregation in an interview conducted by Camille O. Watch the video Haywood Burns on Limitations of the Civil Rights Law Haywood Burns — , director of the National Conference of Black Lawyers, discusses structural inequality and other limitations of the civil rights law in a panel discussion broadcast February 15, , on Black Journal on National Educational Television.