Hand mating In this system the females are allowed to mate one by one. This system reduces the risk of injuries to the animals. It is beneficial when mating older male with a younger female. It also improves the breeding efficiency of male, resulting in an increased number of females that can be bred in shorter period of time.
Males are turned in to the flock only during the night time and separated during day time. Males are also given enough rest and they can be fed properly. The male may lose it most of its body reserves in chasing the females and they may lose their body conditions. Artificial insemination Artificial insemination offer the best means of distributing germplasm from nucleus breeding flock to many small flocks within each eco system. Fresh as well as frozen semen is used.
The speculum method of insemination is used for ewes and does. Cervical insemination is generally followed for better conception rate. Care of pregnant animals The pregnant animals ewes should not be handled frequently. Vigilant eye should be kept for dystocia or difficult birth. Maiden ewes in poor condition or small-framed ewes mated to big rams will generally have difficulty in parturition and will have to be assisted.
If no progress in kidding, better call for the veterinary obstetrician for physical manipulation and surgical need. After kidding the doe naturally licks the kids which she would invariably do and remove the membranous cover and she may even eat it.
Allow to lick the kids, which helps in early drying, sensitizing and stimulating the kid and thereby attracts the new born with motherly instinct towards udder. If she does not do so better remove the membranous attachment from over the face, nostrils, eyes, mouth as well as the body parts. Do not leave the navel cord as such in hanging position lest it may attract the crows in open causing bleeding injury to the navel.
Allow the kids to suckle the mother within 20 minutes of birth so that the kids get Vit-A-rich colostrum and immunoglobulin essential for the kids.
Give the doe warm cereal meal-the gruel drink either as such or mixed with one to two tablespoonful. In case of heavy milker if not sucked by the kid she should be milked out soon to the extent of relieving her udder pressure. Elite dairy goat of high production potential should be milked from the third day of kidding. The first 1 to 2 hrs after birth is the vital period for establishment of bond between the new born and the mother.
Hence the dam should be kept in a calm place without disturbance from stray dogs and other animals. Allow newborn lambs 1 kids to be with their mother all the 24 hrs for first week or so. General breeding management The male female ratio is 1: Young males can be put in to experienced older ewes and older rams to younger ewes will help in better mating. Inbreeding should be avoided. The males should be replaced or exchanged once in two years to avoid inbreeding. Breeding ewe of indigenous breeds should be 18to 24 months depending upon their body condition.
Breeding too young ewes result in more weakling and thus results in higher lamb loss. Body weight of ewe at breeding should normally be less than the adult body weight of that breed. Oestrous detection of all female goats above 1 year should be done either with approned or vasectomized buck both in morning or evening during breeding season.
In order to synchronize them improved hormonal technology may be used or buck may be in a partitioned corral of woven-wire net so that the does and the buck may have full view of each other. This may be done a week or two before or during the breeding season. If 2 services at an interval of 8 to 12 hrs is practised, improvement in conception may be achieved. Goats which do not return to oestrus after 2 cycles are considered as pregnant and should be separated from the dry, non pregnant flock.
They should be kept in a group of not more than 15 to 20 does to avoid infighting. If they have no kidding for complete one, year they should be removed from flock. This will save the kids from cold susceptibility and resultant pneumonic death during winter. Avoid starvation of goat since even two days starvation period early in pregnancy can cause a high percentage of shed embryos to be absorbed. Managemental methods to optimize breeding Oestrous stimulation It is the practice of stimulating and synchronizing breeding by putting vasectomized males with females about 10 days to 2 weeks prior to the beginning of breeding.
As a result of this, large portion of the ewes will ovulate and conceive during the early part of the breeding season. After the administration for 14 days the hormone is withdrawn. The animal comes to heat within 3 days. Administration of two intra muscular injections of Prostaglandin F2 alpha or its synthetic analogues 10 mg each at an interval of 10 days bring all the animals in heat within 72 to 96 hrs.