As they develop, adolescents and young adults need access to comprehensive and non-stigmatizing information about sexual and reproductive health, support networks to have the pregnancies they want, and high-quality, affordable and confidential contraceptive services and abortion services to avoid the pregnancies they do not want.
On average, young people in the United States have sex for the first time at about age 17, but do not marry until their mids. The proportion of young people having sexual intercourse before age 15 has declined in recent years. The second and third most common reasons were not having found the right person and wanting to avoid pregnancy. In —, about half of adolescents aged 15—19 reported ever having oral sex with an opposite-sex partner and about one in 10 reported ever having anal sex with an opposite-sex partner.
However, the proportions were generally unchanged between and — In —, one in five sexually active females aged 15—19 and one-third of sexually active males in this age-group said that they used both a condom and a hormonal method the last time they had sex. However, European adolescents are more likely than U.
However, two states Texas and Utah require parental consent for contraceptive services paid for with state funds. Another 25 states have affirmed that right for certain classes of minors, while four states do not have a statute or policy on the subject.
These services helped adolescents to avert , unintended pregnancies, , unplanned births and 76, abortions. Many are prohibited from doing so by state or local policies. This disproportionate share likely reflects larger age-based disparities in access to preventive services and care.
HPV is extremely common, often asymptomatic and generally harmless. However, certain types, if left undetected and untreated, can lead to cervical cancer. Among non-Hispanic black adolescents, rates of diagnosed chlamydia are more than five times those among non-Hispanic white adolescents, and rates of gonorrhea are more than fourteen times those among non-Hispanic white adolescents. Thirty-two states explicitly allow minors to consent to HIV testing and treatment.
This rate represented a decline to just over one-third of the peak rate of per 1,, which occurred in Seventy-two percent of adolescent pregnancies occurred among the oldest age-group 18—year-olds. In , four pregnancies occurred per 1, females aged 14 or younger. In other words, about 0. In , New Mexico had the highest adolescent pregnancy rate 62 per 1, women aged 15—19 , followed by Arkansas, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Texas and Louisiana.
At 43 per 1, women aged 15—19 in , it is significantly higher than recent rates found in other developed countries, including France 25 per 1, and Sweden 29 per 1, The highest unintended pregnancy rates among these states were found in Arkansas 41 per 1, women younger than 20 , Oklahoma and Tennessee. The states with the lowest unintended pregnancy rates were New Hampshire 16 per 1, women younger than 20 , Minnesota, Massachusetts, Utah and Vermont.
This is the lowest rate observed since abortion was legalized nationwide in , and just one-fourth of the peak rate in This proportion has remained relatively stable since In , the rate among black males aged 15—19 19 per 1, was almost twice that among their white counterparts 10 per 1, Abma JC et al. Chandra A et al. Copen CE, Chandra A and Martinez G, Prevalence and timing of oral sex with opposite-sex partners among females and males aged 15—24 years: What can we learn from these comparisons?
Sedgh G et al. Guttmacher Institute, , https: Boonstra HD, Meeting the sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents in school-based health centers, Guttmacher Policy Review, , 18 1: Department of Health and Human Services, , https: Vaccines to Prevent Human Papillomavirus, Atlanta: Drolet M et al. Reagan-Steiner S et al.
Satterwhite CL et al. Guttmacher Institute, Restricting insurance coverage of abortion, State Laws and Policies as of August , , https: Finer LB et al. Martin JA et al. Hamilton BE et al. Contraceptive Use Among U. Adolescents Aged 15—19 Sources: Martinez G et al. Pregnancies, Births and Abortions Among U. Adolescent Pregnancy Rates in