Etymology[ edit ] It is not known when the term as sexual slang was first used, although its use did gain momentum in the s with the first appearance in print as analogous reference occurring in A Liberated Dictionary of Improper English.
It did not have widespread use in LGBT culture until , when there was an increase of discussion regarding condomless sex as reflected in print publications. As AIDS emerged and the sexual transmission of HIV became known in the s, the use of condoms to prevent infection became much more widespread, especially among men who have sex with men MSM who engage in anal sex. At the beginning of the AIDS crisis, in the context of the invention and development of safe sex , the uptake of condoms among Western MSM was so widespread and effective that condom use became established as a norm for sex between men.
From , several high-profile HIV positive men[ who? While these early articulations of barebacking expressed a concern for HIV prevention, in that they generally referred to dispensing with condoms in the context of sex between people of the same HIV status, the moral panic which ensued was so pronounced that barebacking came to be framed as a rebellious and transgressive erotic practice for HIV positive and HIV negative people alike, irrespective of the risks of HIV transmission.
Academic works suggest that barebacking is a way to reach for transcendence, to overcome the boredom of everyday average life in a hyper-rationalized society. Early articulations of barebacking generally refer to sex between two HIV-positive men. On this account, barebacking could be considered an early harm reduction strategy, similar to serosorting , which was later endorsed by some public health authorities in the USA.
While these drugs do not necessarily prevent the transmission of other STIs, they have stirred a discussion on what "safe" sex without the use of condoms really entails. A study by Perry N. Halkitis concluded that the resurgence of barebacking led to an increase in sexually transmitted infections among the MSM community. The study found that of the men who were familiar with barebacking, nearly half reported they had bareback sex in the last three months. In the San Francisco study, fewer men reported engaging in barebacking when the behavior was defined as intentional unprotected anal intercourse with a non-primary partner.
Brennan explored the stigma attached to the practice, in particular narratives of 'disposal and disgust' that became associated with the performer, and contributed to a decline in his career. As awareness of the risk of AIDS developed, pornography producers came under pressure to use condoms, both for the health of the performers and to serve as role models for their viewers.
By the early s new pornographic videos usually featured the use of condoms for anal sex. However, beginning in the s, an increasing number of studios have been devoted to the production of new films featuring men engaging in unprotected sex. Mainstream gay pornographic studios such as Kristen Bjorn Productions have featured the occasional bareback scene such as in "El Rancho" between performers who are real-life partners.
Other studios such as Falcon Entertainment and Spunk Video have also reissued older pre-condom films. In contrast, some mainstream directors use close-up shots of condom packets being opened, etc. Some bareback pornography studios say that they do not inquire whether their models are HIV positive, but assume that they are infected. Critics suggest that sero-sorting may not prevent the development of a multi-strain HIV "superinfection".
By contrast, BelAmi is one of the studios that claimed from the beginning to test their bareback models for HIV before allowing them to participate in condom-free scenes. A notice on the BelAmi website states: Heterosexual bareback[ edit ] The term bareback sex is used less frequently among heterosexuals.
Health risks[ edit ] In addition to sexually transmitted infections, mechanical trauma are the same as in anal sex. Unprotected anal sex is a risk factor for formation of antisperm antibodies ASA in the recipient. In some people, ASA may cause autoimmune infertility. Antisperm antibodies impair fertilization, negatively affect the implantation process and impair growth and development of the embryo.