Sigmund Freud's views on homosexuality Freud — was skeptical of the possibility of therapeutic conversion. Sigmund Freud was a physician and the founder of psychoanalysis. Freud stated that homosexuality could sometimes be removed through hypnotic suggestion,  and was influenced by Eugen Steinach , a Viennese endocrinologist who transplanted testicles from straight men into gay men in attempts to change their sexual orientation,  stating that his research had "thrown a strong light on the organic determinants of homo-eroticism".
Her father wanted this condition changed. In Freud's view, the prognosis was unfavourable because of the circumstances under which she entered therapy, and because homosexuality was not an illness or neurotic conflict. Freud wrote that changing homosexuality was difficult and possible only under unusually favourable conditions, observing that "in general to undertake to convert a fully developed homosexual into a heterosexual does not offer much more prospect of success than the reverse".
Patients often wanted to become heterosexual for reasons Freud considered superficial, including fear of social disapproval, an insufficient motive for change. Some might have no real desire to become heterosexual, seeking treatment only to convince themselves that they had done everything possible to change, leaving them free to return to homosexuality after the failure they expected.
Freud replied in a letter that later became famous: By asking me if I can help [your son], you mean, I suppose, if I can abolish homosexuality and make normal heterosexuality take its place. The answer is, in a general way we cannot promise to achieve it. In a certain number of cases we succeed in developing the blighted germs of heterosexual tendencies, which are present in every homosexual; in the majority of cases it is no more possible. It is a question of the quality and the age of the individual.
The result of treatment cannot be predicted. Ferenczi hoped to cure some kinds of homosexuality completely, but was content in practice with reducing what he considered gay men's hostility to women, along with the urgency of their homosexual desires, and with helping them to become attracted to and potent with women. In his view, a gay man who was confused about his sexual identity and felt himself to be "a woman with the wish to be loved by a man" was not a promising candidate for cure.
Ferenczi believed that complete cures of homosexuality might become possible in the future when psychoanalytic technique had been improved. Melanie Klein was a pupil of Ferenczi. In her view, it was important to pay attention to the interaction of passive and active homosexual fantasies and strivings, the original interplay of which prevented adequate identification with the father. The patient should be told that his choice of a passive partner allows him to enjoy a passive or receptive mode, while his choice of an active partner allows him to recapture his lost masculinity.
She claimed that these interpretations would reactivate repressed castration anxieties , and childhood narcissistic grandiosity and its complementary fear of dissolving into nothing during heterosexual intercourse would come with the renewal of heterosexual potency. In these articles, she insisted on the attainment of full object-love of the opposite sex as a requirement for cure of homosexuality. In she gave a lecture about treatment of homosexuality which was criticised by Edmund Bergler , who emphasised the oral fears of patients and minimized the importance of the phallic castration fears she had discussed.
The other reason is that readers may take this as a confirmation that all analysis can do is to convince patients that their defects or 'immoralities' do not matter and that they should be happy with them. That would be unfortunate. Klein claimed that entry into the Oedipus Complex is based on mastery of primitive anxiety from the oral and anal stages. If these tasks are not performed properly, developments in the Oedipal stage will be unstable.
Complete analysis of patients with such unstable developments would require uncovering these early concerns. The analysis of homosexuality required dealing with paranoid trends based on the oral stage. The Psycho-Analysis of Children ends with the analysis of Mr. Klein claimed that he illustrated pathologies that enter into all forms of homosexuality: She stated that Mr.
This was made possible by his recovering his belief in the good mother and his ability to sexually gratify her with his good penis and plentiful semen. Brill criticised physical treatments for homosexuality such as bladder washing, rectal massage, and castration, along with hypnosis , but referred approvingly to Freud and Sadger's use of psychoanalysis, calling its results "very gratifying".
Stekel believed that "success was fairly certain" in changing homosexuality through psychoanalysis provided that it was performed correctly and the patient wanted to be treated.
Deutsch reported her analysis of a lesbian, who did not become heterosexual as a result of treatment, but who managed to achieve a "positive libidinal relationship" with another woman.
Deutsch indicated that she would have considered heterosexuality a better outcome. Kinsey's work, and its reception, led Bergler to develop his own theories for treatment, which were essentially to " blame the victim ", in the evaluation of Jennifer Terry, associate professor of Woman's Studies.
Bergler openly violated professional ethics to achieve this, breaking patient confidentiality in discussing the cases of patients with other patients, bullying them, calling them liars and telling them they were worthless. Bergler confronted Kinsey because Kinsey thwarted the possibility of cure by presenting homosexuality as an acceptable way of life, which was the basis of the gay rights activism of the time. A Psychoanalytic Study of Male Homosexuals , in which they concluded that "although this change may be more easily accomplished by some than by others, in our judgment a heterosexual shift is a possibility for all homosexuals who are strongly motivated to change".
The Stonewall riot acquired symbolic significance for the gay rights movement and came to be seen as the opening of a new phase in the struggle for gay liberation. Following these events, conversion therapy came under increasing attack.
Activism against conversion therapy increasingly focused on the DSM's designation of homosexuality as a psychopathology. Supporters of the change used evidence from researchers such as Kinsey and Evelyn Hooker. Psychiatrist Robert Spitzer, a member of the APA's Committee on Nomenclature, played an important role in the events that led to this decision.
Critics argued that it was a result of pressure from gay activists, and demanded a referendum among voting members of the Association. He told The Washington Post that the study "shows some people can change from gay to straight, and we ought to acknowledge that". House of Representatives, the Attorney General of the United States stated "while sexual orientation carries no visible badge, a growing scientific consensus accepts that sexual orientation is a characteristic that is immutable".
President Barack Obama expressed opposition to the practice in