These people were given new lives of servitude, as servants or sex slaves. It is interesting to note that prior to BC, there is no evidence of sexual servitude and slavery in human culture. Greece and Rome were notorious for capturing people and making slaves out of them.
In the height of the Roman Empire , one in every three persons was thought to have been a slave. Men were used as laborers, while women and girls were used for enjoyment purposes. Brothels and mistresses became common. During the 13th century, when the African slave trade was in full swing, women slaves garnered a higher price than men both because of their reproductive value, but also because they were sex objects as well as servants. In the 19th century in the United States , rape was common on southern plantations by masters.
By the start of the 20th century, a white slave trade had begun in Europe and North America, involving thousands of young women who were transported as sex slaves. In Europe at the time, governments had been part of sex slavery schemes for over a century. International treaties were adopted in , , and outlawing the trading of women. In Japan, corporations began offering all expenses paid sex tourism excursions to Taiwan as a perk to their executive personnel. After the Soviet Union fell, the demand for sex slaves boomed.
It was fueled by economic austerity. This was the first time since the white slave trade of the 19th century that huge numbers of Caucasian women were bought and sold for the purpose of sex.
Israel took advantage of the demand for European women that brothels were big money makers. About 80 nations signed and ratified the new treaty. In one case, in Liberia, U. Another issue arose in , when a DynCorp employee testified to Congress that fellow workers stationed in Bosnia had bought girls to keep in their homes as sex slaves.
Today, sex trafficking is still prevalent and booming. There are also women and men being trafficked for the purposes of domestic servitude.
Children in this region are trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation, forced marriage and forced begging. It provided both human capital and new regional opportunities to fuel the expansion. Because people in poverty have few means of supporting themselves, they often have to go to extremes to keep their families afloat.
Children are also vulnerable to trafficking when their families' socio-economic situation is dire. Girls are more likely to be sold into bondage because in many societies, parents often choose to invest in their sons because sons are seen as more valuable.
Girls are not educated and are sent away to work. Human trafficking helps perpetuate the forced labor participation and global poverty. Lower income countries are often the sources for the girls and higher incomes countries is where they are bought. There are many origin countries and many destination countries for sex trafficking. The largest number comes from Russia and the Ukraine. The presence of a large number of foreign men in the Balkans after the war in Yugoslavia led to the trafficking of thousands of women and girls for commercial sex exploitation.
Because of the economic hardships this region has experienced since the fall of the Soviet Union, good living conditions and available work have been lacking. Young women must often leave their homes to find work in the cities because their family's small enterprises do not yield enough to sustain their family. These girls usually migrate around the country alone, which makes them easy targets for traffickers.
Often, young women who are attempting to find legitimate work are tricked by agents with promises of a job. Once they have reached their destination, the girls' papers and documentations are taken and they are forced to work as sex slaves and prostitutes.
Another way women become vulnerable is by entering a country illegally, or overstaying their visas. They turn to criminals to help them stay. One of the common methods used by traffickers is debt-bondage in which the traffickers tell their victims that they owe money relating to their travel and living expenses and that they will not be released until the debt has been repaid.
Also unique is the advanced education of many of the trafficked victims. Although well qualified for employment in their home countries, victims often seek better opportunities or pay abroad. Many ploys have been used to recruit more educated victims including marriage and employment agencies, fake modeling agencies, film production studios, and work and study abroad opportunities. These printed advertisements are rarely vetted. Child trafficking[ edit ] Child trafficking in Europe is mostly likely to occur in children younger than twelve for begging, theft, and other street crimes and older than 15 for commercial sexual exploitation.
Susceptible to trafficking are children with disabilities and children belonging to specific ethnic minorities, such as the Jevgjit in Albania and the Romani people in other parts of the region. Gilly McKenzie, UN Trafficking expert , noted that children meeting these criteria were not generally the victims of outside traffickers, but members of their own community, who sought to generate an income from their sale abroad. Roma children who have been previously trafficked Consequences[ edit ] Dr.
Gilly McKenzie, a leading expert in the U. Fear is the most effective motivator the traffickers use. The girls are imprisoned and kept under guard.
They are given little food and water. Often they are raped by their captors, and then given over to clients. Physical abuse, beatings, and verbal abuse are used to keep the girls in line and under control. To prevent escape attempts, the traffickers take all forms of documentation. They also threaten the girls with threats of violence and murder of their families back home. Because many girls are transported into new countries, they do not speak the language nor do they have any network to assist them.
Because they are illegal aliens, they fear law enforcement and public services. Health risks are the most easily observed and can be the most expensive. Young sex workers, both female and male, are at high risk of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases.
They receive the diseases from clients and pass them along to new clients. There have been reports of sex workers having respiratory problems included allergies , sinus infections , colds , pneumonia , and tuberculosis. Drug use is very common among sex workers, which has its own batch of health problems including over-doses, strokes , and death.
Other health conditions identified were dental problems, lip burns caused by hot crack pipes, facial rashes and sores, herpes, frostbite, swollen legs, bleeding ulcers, and abscesses on legs. Forced abortions with unsterilized instruments can also have health problems.
Addiction to drugs or alcohol was very prevalent, though some rescued victims do not wish to enter a rehabilitation program. Depression , thoughts of suicide , and grief can be attributed to almost all trafficked victims. This included underpayment of wages and recruiting fees. Though, the cost of human capital is nearly impossible to calculate. Prevalence[ edit ] The actual number of those who are being trafficked is nearly impossible to calculate. One reason is the covert nature of the dealings; it is illegal, so gaining hard evidence is not an easy feat.
Internationally there are about 2. Some of the data collection problems identified in this region are: Also The International Centre for Migration Policy Development, in cooperation with national governments and NGOs, has begun the process of forming a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. Although the numbers vary, there are commonalities that begin to show a picture. Women make up the majority of trafficked victims, who are mostly forced into sexual exploitation.
Children are also being trafficked in high numbers. There was no long-existing trade in human beings or established networks to facilitate this business. Instead, the conditions of the transitional societies created the ideal conditions conducive to trade in human beings. Now, years after initial transition, all forms of human trafficking are endemic in the region, a result of poverty, ineffective counter-measures, the frequent collusion of government officials in this trade, and the rise of criminal entrepreneurship.
It is important to collect data on both the victims and their traffickers and information on investigation and prosecution rates are often utilized when assessing a country's performance. Trafficking typologies[ edit ] The following table details trafficking typologies unique to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Because Europe encompasses many countries with diverse political histories, three typologies apply to this region.
Similarities exist between these three categories and when compared with typologies of other regions and countries, it is evident that trafficking in Eastern Europe is more likely to involve women, violence, and be connected with other forms of organized crime.