Letting children be children: The Australian report summarises its conclusion as follows: Images of sexualised children are becoming increasingly common in advertising and marketing material. Children who appear aged 12 years and under are dressed, posed and made up in the same way as sexy adult models. Children that appear on magazines are seen older than they really are because of the sexualised clothes they are given to pose in.
In , the American Psychological Association published an additional report titled " Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls", which performed a study where college students were asked to try on and evaluate either a swimsuit or a sweater. While they waited for 10 minutes wearing the garment, they completed a math test.
The results revealed that young women in swimsuits performed significantly worse on the math problems than did those wearing sweaters. The hypothesis is that individuals about to try on the sweaters had less pressure to look beautiful because they were not wearing revealing clothing therefore they performed better.
In , an American study found that self-sexualization was common among 6—9-year old girls. Girls overwhelmingly chose the sexualized doll over the non-sexualized doll for their ideal self and as popular. However other factors, such as how often mothers talked to their children about what is going on in TV shows and maternal religiosity, reduced those odds. Surprisingly, the mere quantity of girls' media consumption TV and movies was unrelated to their self-sexualization for the most part; rather, maternal self-objectification and maternal religiosity moderated its effects.
The Scottish review also notes that: It also notes that previous coverage "rests on moral assumptions … that are not adequately explained or justified. Report of an Independent Review of the Commercialisation and Sexualisation of Childhood UK The report 'Letting Children Be Children',  also known as the Bailey Report, is a report commissioned by the UK government on the subject of the commercialisation and sexualisation of childhood.
The report was published in June and was commissioned as a result of concerns raised as to whether children's lives are negatively affected by the effects of commercialisation and sexualisation.
On the theme of "the wallpaper of children's lives" it said that it would like to see that sexualised images used in public places should be more in line with what parents find acceptable, to ensure that images in public spaces becomes more child friendly.
On theme two "clothing, products and services for children" the Bailey report said that it would like to see retailers no longer selling or marketing inappropriate clothing, products or services for children. What they would like to see on theme three "children as consumers" is comprehensive regulation protecting children from excessive commercial pressures across all media in-line with parental expectations; that marketers are ethical and do not attempt to exploit gaps in the market to influence children into becoming consumers and to ensure that parents and children have an awareness of marketing techniques and regulations.
Finally in terms of "making parents voices heard" it would like to see parents finding it easier to voice their concerns to, and be listened to by, businesses and regulators. Joanna Skrzydlewska , Member of the European Parliament Effects on women of color[ edit ] The sexualization of women of color is different than the sexualization of white women.
The media plays a significant role in this sexualization. As a media affect, stereotypes rely on the repetition to perpetuate and sustain them. In the s, a South African woman named Sarah Baartman was known as "Hottentot Venus" and her body was paraded around in London and Paris where they looked at her exotic features such as large breasts and behind. Her features were deemed lesser and oversexual. There is also the Jezebel stereotype that portrays black women as "hypersexual, manipulative, animalistic and promiscuous females who cannot be controlled.
Asian female fatale's hypersexualized subjection is derived from her sexual behaviour that is considered as natural to her particular race and culture. Two types of Asian stereotypes that are commonly found in media are the Lotus Flower and the Dragon Lady. The Lotus Flower archetype is the "self-sacrificing, servile, and suicidal Asian women. She attracts with her soft, unthreatening, and servile femininity while concealing her hard, dangerous, and domineering nature.
The Cantina Girl markers are "'great sexual allure,' teasing, dancing, and 'behaving in an alluring fashion. The Vamp representation "uses her intellectual and devious sexual wiles to get what she wants. This has led many to see the Latin people as "what is morally wrong" with the United States. Some believe it to be wrong simply because the interpretation of this culture seems to go against white, Western culture. This sexualization can also be linked to certain stereotypical jobs.
The image of the Latina woman often is not in the business world but in the domestic. Domestic servants, maids, and waitresses are the typical "media-engendered" roles that make it difficult for Latinas to gain "upward mobility" despite the fact that many hold PhDs. Such as child beauty pageants that encourage girls as young as toddlers to wear tight fitted clothing, high heels, and fake eyelashes.
This is also known as the infantilization of women. The employment of youthful celebrity adolescents in highly sexual ways to promote or endorse products. Bratz Baby Dolls marketed at 6-year-old girls that feature sexualized clothing, like fishnet stockings, feather boas, and miniskirts  Highly sexualized and gendered Halloween costumes marketed at young girls, such as the "sexy firefighter", a costume that consists of a tight fitted mini dress and high heeled boots.
However, there is also evidence that with the mean age of puberty declining in Western cultures, functional brassieres are required by a higher percentage of preteen girls than before. The report noted that overall prevalence was limited but this was based on a very narrow research brief. Whilst this shows that not all High street retailers were aiming products deemed sexualized by the researchers, the research cannot be taken out of context and used to say that there is not an issue of sexualization.
Sexualization has also been a subject of debate for academics who work in media and cultural studies. Here, the term has not been used to simply to label what is seen as a social problem, but to indicate the much broader and varied set of ways in which sex has become more visible in media and culture.
According to McNair, both developments can be set in the context of a wider shift towards a "striptease culture" which has disrupted the boundaries between public and private discourse in late modern Western culture, and which is evident more generally in cultural trends which privilege lifestyle, reality, interactivity, self-revelation and public intimacy.
This is a time in their life that they are more susceptible to information that they receive. Children are getting sex education from the media, little kids are exposed to sexualized images and more information than ever before in human history but are not able to process the information, they are not developmentally ready to process it, and this impacts their development and behavior.
Sexualization also contributes to sexual violence and childhood sexual abuse "where 1 in 4 girls and 1 in 6 boys are sexually abused during childhood". Much of the recent writing on sexualization has been the subject of criticism that because of the way that it draws on "one-sided, selective, overly simplifying, generalizing, and negatively toned" evidence  and is "saturated in the languages of concern and regulation".
The way society shapes ones personal interest is presented in a book review of Girls Gone Skank by Patrice Oppliger ,  Amanda Mills states that "consequently, girls are socialized to participate in their own abuse by becoming avid consumers of and altering their behavior to reflect sexually exploitative images and goods. The Erotic As Power" by Audre Lorde stating that the suppression of the erotic of women has led them feeling superior to men "the superficially, erotic had been encouraged as a sign of female inferiority on the other hand women have been made to suffer and to feel opposed contemptible and suspect by virtue of its existence".