Expressions[ edit ] Anthropologists propose three subdivisions of homosexuality: In his study of native cultures pederasty appears typically as a passing stage in which the adolescent is the beloved of an older male, remains as such until he reaches a certain developmental threshold, after which he in turn takes on an adolescent beloved of his own.
This model is judged by Gorer as socially viable, i. He adds that in many societies, pederasty has been the main subject of the arts and the main source of tender and elevated emotions.
The younger partner must, in some sense, not be fully mature; this could include young men in their late teens or early twenties. Its practice dates from the Archaic period onwards in Ancient Greece , but Cretan ritual objects that reflect an already-formalised practice date to the late Minoan civilization , in around BC.
While most Greek men engaged in relations with both girls and boys,  exceptions to the rule were known, some avoiding relations with women, and others rejecting relations with boys. In Ancient Rome , relations with boys took a more informal and less civic path, men taking advantage of dominant social status to extract sexual favors from their social inferiors or carrying on illicit relationships with freeborn boys.
According to Plutarch , the ancient Persians had long practiced it as well, an opinion seconded by Sextus Empiricus who asserted that the laws of the Persians "recommended" the practice. Plutarch, however, counters Herodotus by pointing out that the Persians had been castrating boys long before being exposed to the mores of the Greeks.
Among the Greeks, a few cities prohibited it, and in others, such as Sparta , only the chaste form of pederasty was permitted, according to Xenophon  and others. Likewise, Plato's writings devalue and then condemn sexual intercourse with the boys one loved, and he valued the self-disciplined lover who abstained from consummating the relationship.
Commit not that which is forbidden you in Our Holy Tablet, and be not of those who rove distractedly in the wilderness of their desires. The 2nd-century preacher Clement of Alexandria used divine pederasty as an indictment of Greek religion and the mythological figures of Herakles , Apollo , Poseidon , Laius , and Zeus: These are the gods your wives are to worship!
The law code of the Visigothic king Chindasuinth called for both partners to be " emasculated without delay, and be delivered up to the bishop of the diocese where the deed was committed to be placed in solitary confinement in a prison. At Rome , the punishment was burning at the stake since the time of Theodosius I Nonetheless, the practice continued to surface, giving rise to proverbs such as With wine and boys around, the monks have no need of the Devil to tempt them, an early Christian saying from the Middle East.
Beside its use in the classical sense, the term has also been used as a synonym for anal sex , irrespective of the nature of the partner. A 19th-century sexological treatise discusses men practicing the "insertion of the penis into the anus of women," as "pederasty with their wives.
Jeremy Bentham used the term in this broader sense in an essay dating from the 18th century. Francoeur regards it as "common but incorrect,"  while Haeberle describes it as "a modern usage resulting from a misunderstanding of the original term and ignorance of its historical implications. In medieval Islamic civilization, pederastic relations "were so readily accepted in upper-class circles that there was often little or no effort to conceal their existence.
In Greek art, a cockerel was a conventional gift from an erastes to an eromenos ; see J. Dover, Greek Homosexuality, p. Pederasty in ancient Greece Plato was an early critic of sexual intercourse in pederastic relationships, proposing that men's love of boys avoid all carnal expression and instead progress from admiration of the lover's specific virtues to love of virtue itself in abstract form.
While copulation with boys was often criticized and seen as shameful and brutish,  other aspects of the relationship were considered beneficial, as indicated in proverbs such as A lover is the best friend a boy will ever have. Pederastic art shows seduction scenes as well as sexual relations. In the seduction scenes the man is standing, grasping the boy's chin with one hand and reaching to fondle his genitals with the other. In the sexual scenes, the partners stand embracing face to face, the older of the two engaged in intercrural sex with the younger, who usually but not always does not show arousal.
Anal sex is almost never shown, and then only as something eliciting surprise in the observers. The practice was ostensibly disparaged, the Athenians often naming it jocularly after their Dorian neighbors "cretanize," "laconize," "chalcidize".
While historians such as Dover and Halperin hold that only the man experienced pleasure, art and poetry indicate reciprocation of desire, and other historians assert that it is "a modern fairy tale that the younger eromenos was never aroused. Plutarch gives as examples the Athenians Harmodius and Aristogeiton.
Others, such as Aristotle, claimed that the Cretan lawgivers encouraged pederasty as a means of population control , by directing love and sexual desire into relations with males. Homosexuality in ancient Rome Jupiter abducting Ganymede; 1st-century AD Roman statue From the early Republican times of Ancient Rome , it was perfectly normal for an older man to desire and pursue boys.
For slaves there was no protection under the law even against rape. The social acceptance of pederastic relations waxed and waned during the centuries. Conservative thinkers condemned it — along with other forms of indulgence. Tacitus attacks the Greek customs of gymnasia et otia et turpes amores palaestrae , idleness, and shameful loves.
As Edward Gibbon mentions, of the first fifteen emperors, " Claudius was the only one whose taste in love was entirely correct", the implication being that he was the only one not to take men or boys as lovers.
Martial appears to have favored it, going as far as to essentialize not the sexual use of the catamite but his nature as a boy: Athenaeus in the Deipnosophists states that the Celts also partook and despite the beauty of their women, preferred the love of boys.
Some would regularly bed down on their animal skins with a lover on each side. Other writers also attest to Celtic pederasty: Aristotle Politics, II 6. Some moderns have interpreted Athenaeus as meaning that the Celts had a boy on each side, but that interpretation is questioned by Hubbard, who reads it as meaning that they had a boy one side and a woman on the other.
Herodotus claimed they had learned it from the Greeks: Know, my Sultan, that your soldiers are sodomites". The Way of the Academicians From Hua Ying Chin Chen Variegated Positions of the Flower Battle China, Ming Dynasty — Men's sexual interest in youths was reflected in prostitution, with young male sex workers fetching higher prices than their female counterparts as recently as the beginning of the 20th century.
In Tianjin there were thirty-five male brothels, housing boys. Although the superintendent of trade at Guangzhou issued an annual warning to the population against permitting Westerners access to boy prostitutes "do not indulge the Western barbarian with all our best favors" , Europeans were increasingly welcomed in the boy brothels.
It is very common in the Chinese culture to conceptualize many kinds of alliances as fictive kinship relationships. Boy marriages, which lasted for a set period after which the younger partner would find a wife often with the help of the older one appear to have been part of the culture in the province of Fujian in pre-modern times.
The marriages were said to have been celebrated by the two families in traditional fashion, including the ritual "nine cups of tea". Along with the concentration of Chang'an's gay community here, the North Hamlet was also heavily concentrated with many of the city's entertaining courtesans, as well as its notorious brothel houses for prostitution.
It was prevalent in the religious community and samurai society from the mediaeval period on, and eventually grew to permeate all of society. It fell out of favor around the end of the 19th century, concurrently with the growing European influence. A Kodiak mother will select her handsomest and most promising boy, and dress and rear him as a girl, teaching him only domestic duties, keeping him at women's work, associating him with women and girls, in order to render his effeminacy complete.
Arriving at the age of ten or fifteen years, he is married to some wealthy man who regards such a companion as a great acquisition. The same is the case in Nootka Sound and the Aleutian Islands , where 'male concubinage obtains throughout, but not to the same extent as amongst the Koniagas. In California the first missionaries found the same practice, the youths being called Joya.
Their introduction was ascribed to the god Chin. One aspect was that of the father procuring a younger lover for his son. Juan de Torquemada mentions that if the younger boy was seduced by a stranger, the penalty was equivalent to that for adultery.
Bernal Diaz reported statues of male pairs making love in the temples at Cape Catoche , Yucatan. Legal records are one of the more important windows into this secret world, since for much of the time pederastic relations, like other forms of homosexual relations, were illegal. Reflecting the conflicted outlook on male loves, some northern European writers ascribed pederastic tendencies to populations in southern latitudes.
Richard Francis Burton evolved his theory of the Sotadic zone , an area bounded roughly by N.