Definition[ edit ] Although human trafficking can occur at local or domestic levels, it has international implications, as recognized by the United Nations in the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children also referred to as the Trafficking Protocol or the Palermo Protocol , an international agreement under the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime CTOC which entered into force on 25 December The protocol is one of three which supplement the CTOC.
One of its purposes is to facilitate international cooperation in investigating and prosecuting such trafficking. Another is to protect and assist human trafficking's victims with full respect for their rights as established in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Trafficking Protocol, which now[ timeframe? Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation , forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal, manipulation or implantation of organs ; b The consent of a victim of trafficking in persons to the intended exploitation set forth in sub-paragraph a of this article shall be irrelevant where any of the means set forth in subparagraph a have been used; c The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation shall be considered "trafficking in persons" even if this does not involve any of the means set forth in sub-paragraph a of this article; d "Child" shall mean any person under eighteen years of age.
Though illegal, there may be no deception or coercion involved. After entry into the country and arrival at their ultimate destination, the smuggled person is usually free to find their own way. According to the International Centre for Migration Policy Development ICMPD , people smuggling is a violation of national immigration laws of the destination country, and does not require violations of the rights of the smuggled person.
Human trafficking, on the other hand, is a crime against a person because of the violation of the victim's rights through coercion and exploitation.
While smuggling requires travel, trafficking does not. Trafficked people are held against their will through acts of coercion, and forced to work for or provide services to the trafficker or others. The work or services may include anything from bonded or forced labor to commercial sexual exploitation. Sometimes the arrangement is structured as debt bondage , with the victim not being permitted or able to pay off the debt. Bonded labor , or debt bondage , is probably the least known form of labor trafficking today, and yet is the most widely used method of enslaving people.
Victims become "bonded" when their labor, the labor which they themselves hired and the tangible goods they have bought are demanded as a means of repayment for a loan or service whose terms and conditions have not been defined, or where the value of the victims' services is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt.
Generally, the value of their work is greater than the original sum of money "borrowed". Men are at risk of being trafficked for unskilled work, which globally generates 31 billion USD according to the International Labour Organization. A study observes that "… was particularly notable as the first year in which IOM assisted more victims of labor trafficking than those who had been trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation.
Moderate number of persons Orange: High number of persons Red: Very high number of persons Countries of destination Light blue: High number of persons Blue: Very high number of persons Countries shown in grey are neither countries of origin nor countries of destination A world map showing the legislative situation in different countries to prevent female trafficking as of [update] according to WomanStats Project.
Trafficking is illegal and rare Yellow: Trafficking is illegal but problems still exist Purple: Trafficking is illegal but is still practiced Blue: Trafficking is limitedly illegal and is practiced Red: The armed conflict in Lebanon , which saw , domestic workers from Sri Lanka , Ethiopia and the Philippines jobless and targets of traffickers, led to an emergency information campaign with NGO Caritas Migrant to raise human-trafficking awareness.
Additionally, an April report, Trafficking in Persons: Global Patterns, helped to identify countries of origin, 98 transit countries and destination countries for human trafficking. In addition to many other endeavors, UNODC works to broadcast these announcements on local television and radio stations across the world.
By providing regular access to information regarding human-trafficking, individuals are educated how to protect themselves and their families from being exploited.
GIFT was conceived to promote the global fight on human trafficking, on the basis of international agreements reached at the UN.
This exercise resulted in the publication of the Global Report on Trafficking in Persons in February The report gathers official information for countries and territories in the areas of legal and institutional framework, criminal justice response and victim assistance services.
The Global Initiative is based on a simple principle: This global problem requires a global, multi-stakeholder strategy that builds on national efforts throughout the world. To pave the way for this strategy, stakeholders must coordinate efforts already underway, increase knowledge and awareness, provide technical assistance, promote effective rights-based responses, build capacity of state and non-state stakeholders, foster partnerships for joint action, and above all, ensure that everybody takes responsibility for this fight.
By encouraging and facilitating cooperation and coordination, UN. GIFT aims to create synergies among the anti-trafficking activities of UN agencies, international organizations and other stakeholders to develop the most efficient and cost-effective tools and good practices.
GIFT aims to mobilize state and non-state actors to eradicate human trafficking by reducing both the vulnerability of potential victims and the demand for exploitation in all its forms, ensuring adequate protection and support to those who fall victim, and supporting the efficient prosecution of the criminals involved, while respecting the fundamental human rights of all persons.
In carrying out its mission, UN. GIFT will increase the knowledge and awareness on human trafficking, promote effective rights-based responses, build capacity of state and non-state actors, and foster partnerships for joint action against human trafficking. For more information view the UN. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon launched the United Nations Voluntary Trust Fund for Victims of Trafficking in Persons to provide humanitarian , legal and financial aid to victims of human trafficking with the aim of increasing the number of those rescued and supported, and broadening the extent of assistance they receive.
The Global Report recorded victims of different nationalities detected in countries between and , during which period, different flows were identified.
Around half of all trafficking took place within the same region with 27 per cent occurring within national borders. Trafficking victims from East Asia have been detected in more than 60 countries, making them the most geographically dispersed group around the world.
There are significant regional differences in the detected forms of exploitation. Countries in Africa and in Asia generally intercept more cases of trafficking for forced labour, while sexual exploitation is somewhat more frequently found in Europe and in the Americas.
Additionally, trafficking for organ removal was detected in 16 countries around the world.