Sex differences in spacial ability. Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: An Evolutionary Hypothesis and Test.



Sex differences in spacial ability

Sex differences in spacial ability

The existence of gender differences in cognitive ability is a controversial topic. While there is individual variability within each gender, on average males score higher than females on tests that measure visual-spatial ability. However, there is considerable debate over just how large the differences between males and females are. Researchers also differ in their perspectives on the origins of the gender differences, including the relative contributions of biological, social and cultural factors.

This chapter provides an overview of the research literature, as well as covering the developmental and educational implications for children. Many researchers posit that early expertise in spatial ability in children lays down a foundation for the development of quantitative reasoning, a collective term encompassing science and mathematics.

These researchers argue that the early differences in spatial ability have important implications for student achievement in STEM science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects, and may partially explain the underrepresentation of women in science. However, while some children may be naturally gifted in spatial ability, there is a large body of research showing that spatial proficiency can be improved through relatively brief interventions.

A growing number of educational psychologists have argued that early education of spatial intelligence is necessary as a matter of equity for all students, and that it may offer substantial benefits for the later development of mathematical and scientific skills across all ability levels Halpern et al.

We review interventions aimed at increasing spatial aptitude, and the role of parents and teachers in encouraging the development of these abilities. What is spatial ability? Such tasks often incorporate additional non-spatial processes, including memory and general problem solving skills. Psychologists and cognitive researchers apply the term spatial ability to tasks that are intended to measure specific cognitive processes in isolation.

More generally, it is the ability to perceive and understand spatial relationships, to visualize spatial stimuli such as objects, and to manipulate or transform them in some way - such as mentally rotating an object to imagine what it might look like viewed from a different angle or perspective. Spatial ability is crucial to a wide variety of traditional occupations including architecture, interior decorating, drafting, aviation, as well as a growing number of new and emerging occupations in the science and technology fields.

Spatial ability encompasses a broad range of cognitive processes, with the size of gender differences varying depending on the type of task Voyer et al. More commonly, specially designed tasks are employed to tap one or more spatial components in isolation.

Linn and Petersen , in a pioneering review of the literature, outlined three distinct categories of spatial ability. Firstly, we have spatial perception, which involves perceiving spatial relationships. A commonly employed task of spatial perception is Piagetian Water Level Task, which requires individuals to draw the waterline on a variety of containers or bottles that have been tilted a certain number of degrees see Figure 1.

In the Piaget Water Level Task, subjects are presented with a container of liquid left , with varying quantities of fluid. The container is then tilted adjacent to the horizontal plane. Subjects must then draw a line to indicate the probable water line in each of these containers. Judgment of Line Orientation Task. Subjects must match the orientation of stimuli lines left to a reference array right. The correct answers from left to right are 2, 4 and 9.

The second category of spatial tasks is mental rotation. Tasks measuring mental rotation involve requiring individuals to mentally rotate spatial objects to see how they would look from a different angle or perspective see Figure 3.

Target Shape Four of these drawings show the target object. Can you find the two that match? Subjects must locate both instances of the target shape left amongst the four possible choices. Two of the choices are mirror image distractors. To answer the question correctly, both targets must be located. From Peters and Battista

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Sex Differences in IQ (Intro Psych Tutorial #122)



Sex differences in spacial ability

The existence of gender differences in cognitive ability is a controversial topic. While there is individual variability within each gender, on average males score higher than females on tests that measure visual-spatial ability. However, there is considerable debate over just how large the differences between males and females are. Researchers also differ in their perspectives on the origins of the gender differences, including the relative contributions of biological, social and cultural factors.

This chapter provides an overview of the research literature, as well as covering the developmental and educational implications for children. Many researchers posit that early expertise in spatial ability in children lays down a foundation for the development of quantitative reasoning, a collective term encompassing science and mathematics.

These researchers argue that the early differences in spatial ability have important implications for student achievement in STEM science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects, and may partially explain the underrepresentation of women in science. However, while some children may be naturally gifted in spatial ability, there is a large body of research showing that spatial proficiency can be improved through relatively brief interventions.

A growing number of educational psychologists have argued that early education of spatial intelligence is necessary as a matter of equity for all students, and that it may offer substantial benefits for the later development of mathematical and scientific skills across all ability levels Halpern et al. We review interventions aimed at increasing spatial aptitude, and the role of parents and teachers in encouraging the development of these abilities.

What is spatial ability? Such tasks often incorporate additional non-spatial processes, including memory and general problem solving skills. Psychologists and cognitive researchers apply the term spatial ability to tasks that are intended to measure specific cognitive processes in isolation. More generally, it is the ability to perceive and understand spatial relationships, to visualize spatial stimuli such as objects, and to manipulate or transform them in some way - such as mentally rotating an object to imagine what it might look like viewed from a different angle or perspective.

Spatial ability is crucial to a wide variety of traditional occupations including architecture, interior decorating, drafting, aviation, as well as a growing number of new and emerging occupations in the science and technology fields. Spatial ability encompasses a broad range of cognitive processes, with the size of gender differences varying depending on the type of task Voyer et al. More commonly, specially designed tasks are employed to tap one or more spatial components in isolation.

Linn and Petersen , in a pioneering review of the literature, outlined three distinct categories of spatial ability. Firstly, we have spatial perception, which involves perceiving spatial relationships.

A commonly employed task of spatial perception is Piagetian Water Level Task, which requires individuals to draw the waterline on a variety of containers or bottles that have been tilted a certain number of degrees see Figure 1.

In the Piaget Water Level Task, subjects are presented with a container of liquid left , with varying quantities of fluid. The container is then tilted adjacent to the horizontal plane.

Subjects must then draw a line to indicate the probable water line in each of these containers. Judgment of Line Orientation Task. Subjects must match the orientation of stimuli lines left to a reference array right. The correct answers from left to right are 2, 4 and 9. The second category of spatial tasks is mental rotation.

Tasks measuring mental rotation involve requiring individuals to mentally rotate spatial objects to see how they would look from a different angle or perspective see Figure 3. Target Shape Four of these drawings show the target object. Can you find the two that match?

Subjects must locate both instances of the target shape left amongst the four possible choices. Two of the choices are mirror image distractors. To answer the question correctly, both targets must be located. From Peters and Battista

Sex differences in spacial ability

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  1. Read the latest issue. Its goals are to publish articles that are of broad interest to the readership, pose new and significant problems, introduce novel subjects, develop conceptual unification, and change the way people think. Each feeder was rubbed with the scent of the food item apple for giant pandas, fish for otters before each session so that the baited feeders could not be identified by olfactory cues.

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