The French established their own as well along the Mississippi River. Many settlers were dissenting Christian groups who came seeking religious freedom. The continent's first elected legislative assembly, Virginia's House of Burgesses created in , the Mayflower Compact , signed by the Pilgrims before disembarking, and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut , established precedents for the pattern of representative self-government and constitutionalism that would develop throughout the American colonies.
Cash crops included tobacco, rice, and wheat. Extraction industries grew up in furs, fishing and lumber. Manufacturers produced rum and ships, and by the late colonial period, Americans were producing one-seventh of the world's iron supply. English colonists were supplemented by waves of Scotch-Irish and other groups. As coastal land grew more expensive, freed indentured servants pushed further west. Relatively small Native American populations were eclipsed. Excluding the Native Americans , who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.
Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas. Although the Spanish did not land, natives paddled to the ship to trade furs for abalone shells from California.
There may also have been confusion with Nuu-chah-nulth , the natives' autonym a name for themselves. It may also have simply been based on Cook's mispronunciation of Yuquot, the native name of the place.
Violence was not a significant factor in the overall decline among Native Americans , though conflict among themselves and with Europeans affected specific tribes and various colonial settlements. Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars.
At the same time, however, many natives and settlers came to depend on each other. Settlers traded for food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European wares. European missionaries and others felt it was important to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural techniques and lifestyles.
He returned to Hawaii to resupply, initially exploring the coasts of Maui and the big island , trading with locals and then making anchor at Kealakekua Bay in January When his ships and company left the islands, a ship's mast broke in bad weather, forcing them to return in mid-February. Cook would be killed days later. Americans had developed an ideology of " republicanism " asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures.
They demanded their rights as Englishmen and "no taxation without representation". The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and the conflict escalated into war. The fourth day of July is celebrated annually as Independence Day.
Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of in writing the United States Constitution , ratified in state conventions in The federal government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances, in George Washington, who had led the revolutionary army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution.
The Bill of Rights , forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism ;  in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.