Four additional slave-holding states — Virginia , Arkansas , Tennessee , and North Carolina — declared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other seized federal properties in the South.
The antebellum state governments in both maintained their representation the Union. Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law ; Delaware , though of divided loyalty, did not attempt it. A Unionist government was formed in opposition to the secessionist state government in Richmond and administered the western parts of Virginia that had been occupied by Federal troops. The Restored Government later recognized the new state of West Virginia , which was admitted to the Union during the war on June 20, , and re-located to Alexandria for the rest of the war.
As Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers, teamsters and laborers. The most notable advance was Sherman's " March to the Sea " in late Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs, railroads and bridges. Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were severely damaged. Internal movement became increasingly difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and limiting army mobility.
Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Davis 's administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, and allegations of autocratic government. After four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April Grant , effectively signalling the collapse of the Confederacy. President Davis was captured on May 10, , and jailed in preparation for a treason trial that was ultimately never held.
It was formed by delegations from seven slave states of the Lower South that had proclaimed their secession from the Union.
After the fighting began in April, four additional slave states seceded and were admitted. Later, two slave states Missouri and Kentucky and two territories were given seats in the Confederate Congress. Southern California , although having some pro-Confederate sentiment, was never organized as a territory.
Many southern whites had considered themselves more Southern than American   and were prepared to fight for their state and their region to be independent of the larger nation. That regionalism became a Southern nationalism, or the "Cause".
For the duration of its existence, the Confederacy underwent trial by war. This "Cause" supported, or descended from, cultural and financial dependence on the South's slavery-based economy. The convergence of race and slavery, politics, and economics raised almost all South-related policy questions to the status of moral questions over way of life, commingling love of things Southern and hatred of things Yankee the North.
Not only did national political parties split, but national churches and interstate families as well divided along sectional lines as the war approached. Coski, The statesmen who led the secession movement were unashamed to explicitly cite the defense of slavery as their prime motive Acknowledging the centrality of slavery to the Confederacy is essential for understanding the Confederate.
Douglas and John Bell. All had residents who cast significant numbers of Unionist votes in either the legislature, conventions, popular referendums, or in all three.
Voting to remain in the Union did not necessarily mean that individuals were northern sympathizers. Once hostilities began, many of these who voted to remain in the Union, particularly in the Deep South, accepted the majority decision, and supported the Confederacy. Craven in , the Confederate States of America was created by secessionists in Southern slave states who believed that the federal government was making them second-class citizens and refused to honor their belief that slavery was beneficial to the Negro.
House, Senate, and Presidency. Taney a presumed supporter of slavery was 83 years old, and ailing. During the campaign for president in , some secessionists threatened disunion should Lincoln who opposed the expansion of slavery into the territories be elected, most notably William L.
Yancey toured the North calling for secession as Stephen A. Douglas toured the South calling for union in the event of Lincoln's election.
A Lincoln victory presented them with a momentous choice as they saw it , even before his inauguration — "the Union without slavery, or slavery without the Union". American Civil War historian James M. McPherson suggested that, for the Southerners, the most ominous feature of the Republican victories in the Congressional and Presidential elections of was the magnitude of those victories.
Republicans captured over 60 percent of the Northern vote, and won three-fourths of its Congressional delegations. The Southern press said that such Republicans represented the anti-slavery portion of the North, "a party founded on the single sentiment The "Black Republican party" could overwhelm conservative Yankees. The New Orleans Delta said of the Republicans, "It is in fact, essentially, a revolutionary party" to overthrow slavery.
Historian Drew Gilpin Faust observed that "leaders of the secession movement across the South cited slavery as the most compelling reason for southern independence". For struggling yeomen and subsistence farmers, the slave society provided a large class of people ranked lower in the social scale than they.
Historian Emory Thomas assessed the Confederacy's self-image by studying the correspondence sent by the Confederate government in —62 to foreign governments. He found that Confederate diplomacy projected multiple contradictory self-images: The Southern nation was by turns a guileless people attacked by a voracious neighbor, an 'established' nation in some temporary difficulty, a collection of bucolic aristocrats making a romantic stand against the banalities of industrial democracy, a cabal of commercial farmers seeking to make a pawn of King Cotton , an apotheosis of nineteenth-century nationalism and revolutionary liberalism, or the ultimate statement of social and economic reaction.
Vice President Alexander H. Stephens declared that the "cornerstone" of the new government "rest[ed] upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery — subordination to the superior race — is his natural and normal condition.
This, our new government, is the first, in the history of the world, based upon this great physical, philosophical, and moral truth". Georgia also claimed a general Federal policy of favoring Northern over Southern economic interests. Texas mentioned slavery 21 times, but also listed the failure of the federal government to live up to its obligations, in the original annexation agreement, to protect settlers along the exposed western frontier.
Texas resolutions further stated that governments of the states and the nation were established "exclusively by the white race, for themselves and their posterity".
They also stated that although equal civil and political rights applied to all white men, they did not apply to those of the "African race", further opining that the end of racial enslavement would "bring inevitable calamities upon both [races] and desolation upon the fifteen slave-holding states".
Instead the Alabama ordinance stated "the election of Abraham Lincoln The ordinance invited "the slaveholding States of the South, who may approve such purpose, in order to frame a provisional as well as a permanent Government upon the principles of the Constitution of the United States" to participate in a February 4, convention in Montgomery, Alabama.
Under the influence of men such as Texas Governor Sam Houston , delay would have had the effect of sustaining the Union. Southern Unionists' favorite presidential candidate was John Bell of Tennessee, sometimes running under an "Opposition Party" banner.
Governor William Henry Gist of South Carolina corresponded secretly with other Deep South governors, and most southern governors exchanged clandestine commissioners. The most influential were: The foreman of a jury refused the legitimacy of federal courts, so Federal Judge Andrew Magrath ruled that U. A mass meeting in Charleston celebrating the Charleston and Savannah railroad and state cooperation led to the South Carolina legislature to call for a Secession Convention.
Senator James Chesnut, Jr. Kentucky declared neutrality, while Missouri had its own civil war until the Unionists took power and drove the Confederate legislators out of the state. The House approved it by a vote of to 65 and the United States Senate adopted it, with no changes, on a vote of 24 to It was then submitted to the state legislatures for ratification. The text was as follows: No amendment shall be made to the Constitution which will authorize or give to Congress the power to abolish or interfere, within any State, with the domestic institutions thereof, including that of persons held to labor or service by the laws of said State.
Had it been ratified by the required number of states prior to , it would have made institutionalized slavery immune to the constitutional amendment procedures and to interference by Congress. There the fundamental documents of government were promulgated, a provisional government was established, and a representative Congress met for the Confederate States of America.