Glossary of Demographic Terms — A — Abortion Rate The number of abortions per 1, women ages or in a given year. Abortion Ratio The number of abortions per 1, live births in a given year. It is defined by the occurrence of any of more than 20 opportunistic infections or HIV-related cancers. Age-Dependency Ratio The ratio of persons in the ages defined as dependent under 15 years and over 64 years to persons in the ages defined as economically productive years in a population.
Age-Sex Structure The composition of a population as determined by the number or proportion of males and females in each age category. The age-sex structure of a population is the cumulative result of past trends in fertility, mortality, and migration. Information on age-sex composition is essential for the description and analysis of many other types of demographic data.
See also population pyramid. Age-Specific Rate Rate obtained for specific age groups for example, age-specific fertility rate, death rate, marriage rate, illiteracy rate, or school enrollment rate. Aging of Population A process in which the proportions of adults and elderly increase in a population, while the proportions of children and adolescents decrease.
This process results in a rise in the median age of the population. Aging occurs when fertility rates decline while life expectancy remains constant or improves at the older ages.
Antinatalist Policy The policy of a government, society, or social group to slow population growth by attempting to limit the number of births. Three drugs are used in order to reduce the likelihood of the virus developing resistance. ART has the potential both to reduce mortality and morbidity rates among HIV-infected people, and to improve their quality of life.
These regions were the first newly industrialized countries, noted for maintaining exceptionally high growth rates and rapid industrialization between the early s and s. In the 21st century, all four regions have since graduated into advanced economies and high-income economies. Baby Bust A rapid decline in U.
Balancing Equation A basic demographic formula used to estimate total population change between two points in time — or to estimate any unknown component of population change, provided that the other components are known. The balancing equation includes all components of population change: Birth Control Practices employed by couples that permit sexual intercourse with reduced likelihood of conception and birth.
The term birth control is often used synonymously with such terms as contraception, fertility control, and family planning. But birth control includes abortion to prevent a birth, whereas family planning methods explicitly do not include abortion.
Birth Rate or crude birth rate The number of live births per 1, population in a given year. Not to be confused with the growth rate. Birth Rate for Unmarried Women The number of live births per 1, unmarried women never married, widowed, or divorced ages in a given year. Case Fatality Rate The proportion of persons contracting a disease who die from it during a specified time period.
Case Rate The number of reported cases of a specific disease per , population in a given year. Cause-Specific Death Rate The number of deaths attributable to a specific cause per , population in a given year. Census A canvass of a given area, resulting in an enumeration of the entire population and often the compilation of other demographic, social, and economic information pertaining to that population at a specific time.
Childbearing Years The reproductive age span of women, assumed for statistical purposes to be or years of age. Child-Woman Ratio The number of children under age 5 per 1, women ages or in a population in a given year. This crude fertility measure, based on basic census data, is sometimes used when more specific fertility information is not available.
Closed Population A population with no migratory flow either in or out, so that changes in population size occur only through births and deaths. Cohort A group of people sharing a common temporal demographic experience who are observed through time.
For example, the birth cohort of is the people born in that year. There are also marriage cohorts, school class cohorts, and so forth. Rates derived from such cohort analyses are cohort measures. Compare with period analysis.
Completed Fertility Rate The number of children born per woman to a cohort of women by the end of their childbearing years. Consensual Union Cohabitation by an unmarried couple for an extended period of time.
Although such unions may be quite stable, they are not regarded as legal marriages in official statistics. Contraceptive Prevalence Percentage of couples currently using a contraceptive method. Crude Rate Rate of any demographic event computed for an entire population. Demographic Transition The historical shift of birth and death rates from high to low levels in a population.
The decline of mortality usually precedes the decline in fertility, thus resulting in rapid population growth during the transition period.
Demography The scientific study of human populations, including their sizes, compositions, distributions, densities, growth, and other characteristics, as well as the causes and consequences of changes in these factors. Dependency Ratio The ratio of the economically dependent part of the population to the productive part; arbitrarily defined as the ratio of the elderly ages 65 and older plus the young under age 15 to the population in the working ages ages Depopulation The state of population decline.
Divorce Rate or crude divorce rate The number of divorces per 1, population in a given year. Doubling Time The number of years required for the population of an area to double its present size, given the current rate of population growth. Economic Security The condition of having stable income or other resources to support a standard of living now and in the foreseeable future. Emigration The process of leaving one country to take up permanent or semipermanent residence in another.
Emigration Rate The number of emigrants departing an area of origin per 1, population in that area of origin in a given year. Ethnicity The cultural practices, language, cuisine, and traditions — not biological or physical differences — used to distinguish groups of people. Families may consist of siblings or other relatives as well as married couples and any children they have. Family Planning The conscious effort of couples to regulate the number and spacing of births through artificial and natural methods of contraception.
Family planning connotes conception control to avoid pregnancy and abortion, but it also includes efforts of couples to induce pregnancy. Fecundity The physiological capacity of a woman to produce a child. Fertility The actual reproductive performance of an individual, a couple, a group, or a population.
See general fertility rate. The social definitions of what it means to be a woman or a man vary among cultures and change over time. Gender is a sociocultural expression of particular characteristics and roles that are associated with certain groups of people with reference to their sex and sexuality.
Gender Equity is the process of being fair to women and men. To ensure fairness, measures must be taken to compensate for historical and social disadvantages that prevent women and men from operating on a level playing field. Gender Equality is the state or condition that affords women and men equal enjoyment of human rights, socially valued goods, opportunities, and resources.
General Fertility Rate The number of live births per 1, women ages or years in a given year. Gross National Income GNI GNI formerly GNP is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes less subsidies not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income compensation of employees and property income from abroad.
Data are in current U. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U. Gross Reproduction Rate GRR The average number of daughters that would be born alive to a woman or group of women during her lifetime if she passed through her childbearing years conforming to the age-specific fertility rates of a given year.
See also net reproduction rate and total fertility rate. Growth Rate The number of people added to or subtracted from a population in a year due to natural increase and net migration expressed as a percentage of the population at the beginning of the time period.
Household One or more persons occupying a housing unit. Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV Retrovirus that infects cells of the immune system, destroying or impairing their function. As the infection progresses, the immune system becomes weaker, and the person becomes more susceptible to infections.
HIV is transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse, transfusion of contaminated blood, sharing of contaminated needles, and between a mother and her infant during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. Immigration The process of entering one country from another to take up permanent or semipermanent residence. Immigration Rate The number of immigrants arriving at a destination per 1, population at that destination in a given year.
Incidence Rate The number of persons contracting a disease per 1, population at risk, for a given period of time. Infant Mortality Rate The number of deaths of infants under age 1 per 1, live births in a given year. In-migration The process of entering one administrative subdivision of a country such as a province or state from another subdivision to take up residence.
Most commonly cited as life expectancy at birth. Life Span The maximum age that human beings could reach under optimum conditions. Life Table A tabular display of life expectancy and the probability of dying at each age or age group for a given population, according to the age-specific death rates prevailing at that time.
Marital Fertility Rate Number of live births to married women per 1, married women ages or in a given year. Marriage Rate or crude marriage rate The number of marriages per 1, population in a given year. Maternal Mortality Ratio The number of women who die as a result of pregnancy and childbirth complications per , live births in a given year.
Mean Age The mathematical average age of all the members of a population. Median Age The age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older.
Megalopolis A term denoting an interconnected group of cities and connecting urbanized bands. The MENA region includes: Metropolitan Area A large concentration of population, usually an area with , or more people. The area typically includes an important city with 50, or more inhabitants and the administrative areas bordering the city that are socially and economically integrated with it. Migration The movement of people across a specified boundary for the purpose of establishing a new or semipermanent residence.
Divided into international migration migration between countries and internal migration migration within a country. The United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September , commits world leaders to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women.
The MDGs are derived from this declaration, and all have specific targets and indicators. Mobility The geographic movement of people.